Basics of Textiles


Textile is the field of Science in which deals with fiber and its end products. Here is a brief description of textile processing.


It is the process of cleaning the cotton. Heavy impurities like leaves, seeds etc. are removed from cotton in this process. From ginning factories, cotton is sent to spinning factories in bale form. There are two methods of ginning.

Roller Ginning: for long length fibers.

Saw Ginning: for short length fibers.


Spinning is the process of converting fiber into yarn. Spinning involves following mechanical operations.

 Blow Room

Blow room is the combination of different small machines. Cotton from ginning factories is taken in bale form. These bales are opened in spinning factories and cotton is fed to blow room. In blow room severe opening and cleaning of cotton takes place. The output of Blow room is Lap.dhi textile

  1.  Carding Machine:

It is the machine which comes in second in spinning process. In carding, severe opening and cleaning of cotton takes place. The lap has tufty form of cotton. In carding we open cotton in fiber to fiber state. Thus carding action converts tufty material into filmy web called Sliver. Carding is also called the “Heart of Spinning”. It is also said, “Well carded is well spun”. The output of carding machine is Carded Sliver.

3  Draw Frame:

 The carded sliver is fed to Draw Frame. The fibers in carded sliver are not in regular form. Carded sliver has thick and thin places. These irregularities are removed in drawing. Mostly, eight slivers are fed to the draw frame together and a single drawn sliver is obtained as output.


The drawn sliver is converted to Roving on simplex. Here, weight per unit length of cotton is reduced and some twist is imparted to the material. This twist keeps the fibers together. Roving is the skeleton of yarn.

5.  Ring Frame:

Ring frame is the last machine in sequence of spinning. The processes practiced on fiber before ring frame are called “Spinning Preparatory Processes”. From ing frame we get the final product of spinning called “Yarn”. Yarn has less weight per unit length and greater twist per inch as compared to roving. The yarn from ring frame is obtained in proper package form called “Bobbin”.

 Spinning machines and their final products


Sr. # Machine Input Output Package
1 Blow Room Cotton Tufts Lap Lap Roll
2 Carding Machine Lap Carded Sliver Sliver Cans
3 Draw Frame Carded Sliver Drawn Sliver Sliver Cans
4 Simplex Drawn Sliver Roving Roving Bobbin
5. Ring Frame Roving Yarn Ring Bobbin


Weaving is the process in which fabric is formed by the interlacement of threads with the help of looms. Before learning weaving one should know about the warp and weft threads.

The threads which are in vertical alignment with the fabric or parallel to the selvedge of the fabric are known as warp threads. The threads which are in horizontal alignment with the fabric or perpendicular with the selvedge of the fabric are known as weft threads.


Winding is the process in which yarn from ring bobbins is wound onto a convenient form of package called cone. Cone has much greater quantity of yarn than bobbin.


Warping is the process of winding the warp threads from cones to bigger packages called beams. The required number of threads, according to the construction of fabric, is wound on warper’s beam.


Size is the material which is applied to warp threads for giving it some strength. The process of applying size to yarn is called Sizing. The end product of sizing is sizer beam. This beam is ready to be placed on the loom and it contains  the required number of warp threads for the construction fabric.

 Drawing In:

The process of passing warp threads through loom in a given order is called Drawing In. After sizing the beam is taken to the loom and drawing in process is performed.dhi textile 1

5. Weaving:

The last process of converting yarn into fabric is weaving. This is done with the help of loom. The fabric is formed by the interlacement of warp and weft threads. The fabric obtained from loom is called “Greigh Fabric”.


The Greigh fabric has a very rough feel, so it cant be worn. It contains many impurities and above all the size material which gives it a harsh feel. So, in processing, these impurities are removed and fabric is colored. It is to follow as


Singeing is the process in which we burn small fibers protruding from the   interstices of fabric. These fibers give rough look to fabric and also cause problems in the subsequent processes. So it is very important to remove these fibers. Mostly gas burners are used for this process.

2.  Desizing:

Desizing is the process of removing size material from the fabric. Desizing is a chemical process and different chemicals are used for this process.

3. Scouring:

Scouring is the process of removing fats and oils from the fabric. Scouring is similar to soap washing. Different chemicals are used for this process. If these fats and oils remain on the fabric, they cause problems in dyeing and printing.

4. Bleaching:

Bleaching is the process of removing colored impurities from the fabric. After bleaching, the fabric gives shiny white look. This fabric is ready for dyeing or printing. For white colored fabric, the bleached fabric is directly finished and packed.

5.  Dyeing:

Dyeing is the process of giving color to the fabric. Different types of dyes are used for dyeing of different kind of materials. Different colors are produced by combining two or three colored dyes. Care is taken in giving uniform color to the fabric.

6. Printing:

Printing is the process of producing special colored designs on the fabric. These designs are developed by designers and are produced on fabric by printers.

7. Finishing:

Finishing is the process in which fabric is given soft handle and its dimensions are set. This process improves the sew ability and wear ability of fabric. Sometimes, special affects are produced in the fabric during finishing like fire retardancy and water repellency etc.

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