Stone wash is most common in denim wearing. Typical in denim, due to its unique fabric construction gets antique look with time passing. An old jean is famous for the white and blue texture that appears on warp and weft of garment. In fashion it is required on fresh articles and enzyme wash is designed to create this effect on garments.
As the name implies, freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with stones. Pumice stones gives the additional effect of a faded or worn look. The pumice abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper, removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn. Pumice has been used since the introduction of stone washed jeans in the early eighty.
A Stone washing with pumic has some disadvantages. The intensity of the abrasion process is difficult to control. Small will not give the desired look. Too much can damage the fabric, mostly at the hems and waistbands. The effect in a load of jeans is never consistent, with a noteworthy percentage always getting bust by too much abrasion. The process is also non-selective. Everything in the washing machines gets abraded, including the metal buttons and rivets on the jeans as well as the drum of the washing machine. This significantly reduces the quality of the products and the life of the equipment, and increases production expenses. Environmental regulations have put severe stress on the textiles industry to control pollution by wastewater treatment and disposing of the slush (used pumic).
A technique known as “Bio-stoning” was introduced in Europe in start of 1990 and then quickly adopted in rest of the world the following year. Bio-stoning is an action of enzymes to garment similar to pumice stone. Enzymes have been used in the textiles industry to remove starch and wax residues from raw materials and to give fabric a uniform finish.. The enzymes used in biostoning are known as “cellulases.”